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Measures

 

Systems of Weights & Measures

Area Measures:

(American Customary)

survey township = 4 square leagues = 36 sections = 23,040 acres = 93.24km2

section/square mile = 640 acres = 102,400 square chains = 2.59km2

acre = 10 square chains = 160 square rods = 4,840 square yards = 4046.9m2

square chain = 16 square rods = 484 square yards = 4,356 square feet = 404.7m2

square rod = 30.25 square yards = 272.25 square feet = 39,204 square inches = 25.3m2

square yard = 9 square feet = 1,296 square inches = 0.835m2

square foot = 144 square inches = 929cm2


(British Imperial)

acre = 1 chain x 1 furlong = 14,520 square yards = 43,560 square feet = 4,046.9m2 = 0.405 hectares

rood = 1 rod x 1 furlong = 3630 square yards = 10,890 square feet = 1011.7m2 = 0.1 hectares

perch = 1 rod x 1 rod = 90.73 square yards = 272.5 square feet = 24.29m2 = 0.0025 hectares


(English Medieval)

Hundred or wapentake = 100 hides = 48,000-96,000 acres (100 freeholds)

Tithing = 10 hides = 4800-9600 acres (10 freeholds)

Knight's Fee = 5 hides = 2.5 to 5 carucates = 20-40 bovates = 2,400-4,800 acres (knight's holding)

Hide = 1/2 to 1 carucate = 2-4 virgates = 4-8 bovates = 480-960 acres (standard freehold farm)

Carucate/Plough = 4 virgates = 8 bovates = 120 acres (land plowable by an eight-ox team in a year)

Virgate/Yard Land = 2 bovates = 30 acres = 60 roods (land plowable by a pair of oxen in a year)

Bovate = 15 acres = 60 roods (land plowable by a single ox in a year)

Acre = 4 rods x 1 furlong = 4 roods = 40 perches = 4840 square yards = 43,560 square feet

Rood = quarter acre = 1 rod x 1 furlong = 10 perches = 1,210 square yards = 10,890 square feet 

Perch = square rod = 30.25 square yards = 272.5 square feet


(Greek)

plethron = 100 podes x 100 podes = 4 acres


(Roman)

saltus = 1,600 acres = 4 centuria = 400 heredii = 800 iugerae = 1600 quadrati = 201.9 hectares

centuria = 400 acres = 100 heredii = 200 iugerae = 400 quadrati = 50.5 hectares

heredium = 4 acres = 2 iugerae = 4 quadrati = 16 climas = 120 actes minimi = 5,040m2

iugerum = 2 acres = 2 quadrati = 8 climas = 60 actes minimi = 2,520m2

quadratus = 1 acre = 4 climas = 30 actes minimi = 144 scripulae = 1,260m2

clima = 1/4 acre = 7 1/2 actes minimi = 36 scripulae = 315m2

actus minimus = 1/30 acre = 4 3/4 scipulae = 42m2

scripulum = 100 pedes quadratii = 1/144 acre = 8.76m2

pes quadratus = 1/14,400 acres = 876 cm2

 

Distance & Length Measures:

(American Customary)

mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 1609.3 m = 1.609km

yard = 3 feet = 36 inches = 216 picas = 91.4cm

foot = 12 inches = 72 picas = 864 points = 30.48cm

inch = 6 picas = 72 points = 2.54cm

pica = 12 points = 4.233 mm

point = 252µm


(American Naval)

nautical mile = 8.44 cables = 1.15 statute miles = 6,076 feet = 1,852 meters

cable = 120 fathoms = 240 yards = 720 feet = 219.5m

fathom = 2 yards = 6 feet = 1.83m


(American Survey)

league = 3 miles = 24 furlongs = 240 chains = 720 rods = 2,880 chains = 5,280 yards = 4.83km

mile = 8 furlongs = 80 chains = 240 rods = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 1.61km

furlong = 10 chains = 40 rods = 220 yards = 660 feet = 1,000 links = 7,920 inches = 201.2m

chain = 4 rods = 22 yards = 66 feet = 100 links = 792 inches = 20.1m

rod =  5.5 yards = 16.5 feet = 25 links = 198 inches = 5.03m

yard = 3 feet = 36 inches = 91.4 cm

foot = 12 inches = 30.48cm

link = 7.92 inches = 2.20 cm


(British Imperial)

league = 3 miles = 24 furlongs = 240 chains = 4.83km 

mile = 8 furlongs = 80 chains = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 1.61km

furlong = 10 chains = 220 yards = 660 feet = 201.17m

chain = 22 yards = 22 yards = 66 feet = 792 inches = 20.12m

yard = 3 feet = 26 inches = 914.4mm

foot = 12 inches = 12,000 thou = 304.8 mm

inch = 1,000 thou = 1/12 foot = 25.4 mm

thou = 1/12000 foot = 0.024mm


(British Maritime)

nautical mile = 10 cables = 1,000 fathoms = 6,080 feet = 1.85km

cable = 100 fathoms = 608 feet = 185.3m

fathom = 6.08  feet = 1.85m


(English Medieval)

League = 3 miles = 24 furlongs = 320 chains = 5,160 yards (intended to be 1 hour's walking distance)

Mile = 8 furlongs = 80 chains = 1,720 yards = 5,280 feet

Furlong = 10 chains = 40 rods = 220 yards = 660 feet ( the length of a plough's furrow)

Chain = 4 rods = 22 yards = 66 feet = 100 links

Rod/perch = 5.5 yards = 16.5 feet

Fathom = 2 yards = 6 feet = 12 shaftments = 18 hands = 24 palms = 72 inches

(from the right middle fingertip to the left middle fingertip with arms outstretched.)

Ell = 1 1/4 yards = 3 3/4 feet = 45 inches

(from the right middle fingertip to the left shoulder

Yard = 2 cubits = 3 feet = 6 shaftments = 9 hands = 12 palms = 36 inches

(from the right middle fingertip to the nose)

Cubit = 1 1/2 feet = 9 palms = 18 inches (from the right middle fingertip to the elbow)

Foot = 2 shaftments = 3 hands = 4 palms = 12 inches = 36 barleycorns (the length of a foot

Span = 9 inches = 3 palms (from the thumb to the pinkie of an outstretched hand)

Link = 7.92 inches or 1/100 of a chain

Shaftment = 6 inches = 18 barleycorns = 216 lines

Hand = 4 inches = 12 barleycorns = 144 lines (the height of a flattened hand)

Palm = 3 inches = 9 barleycorns = 108 lines (the width of the palm of a hand)

Nail = 2 1/4 inches = 3 digits

Inch = 3 barleycorns = 12 lines

Finger = 7/8 inch

Digit = 3/4 inch

Barleycorn = 1/3 inch = 4 lines

Line or Poppyseed = 1/4 barleycorn


(Greek)

shoinos = 40 stadia = 240 plethrones = 7.99km

parasanga = 30 stadia = 180 plethrones = 5.99km

dolichos = 12 stadia = 72 plethrones = 2.4km

hippikon = 4 stadia = 24 plethrones = 480 diplounes bemiae = 2,400 podes = 799.2m

diaulos = 2 stadia = 12 plethrones = 240 diplounes bemiae = 1,200 podes = 399.6m

stadion = 6 plethrones = 120 diplounes bemiae = 240 haplounes bemiae = 600 podes = 199.8m

plethron = 20  diplounes bemiae = 40 haplounes bemiae = 100 podes = 33.3m

akaina = 2 diplounes bemiae = 4 haplounes bemiae = 10 podes = 3.33m

orgyia = 6 podes = 1.99m

diploun bema = 2 haplounes bemiae = 5 podes = 1.67m

haploun bema = 2.5 podes = 83.25cm

pechys = 2 spithamoi = 24 daktyloi = 4.99cm

pygon = 20 daktyloi = 4.16cm

pygme = 18 daktyloi = 3.74cm

pous = 2 dichoi = 4 dorones = 8 kondyloi = 16 daktyloi = 33.3cm

spithame = 12 daktyloi = 25cm

orthodoron = 11 daktyloi = 22.9cm

lichas = 10 daktyloi = 20.8cm

dichas = 2 donoes = 4 kondyloi  = 8 daktyloi = 16.7cm

doron = 2 kondyloi = 4 daktyloi = 8.325cm

kondylos = 2 daktyloi = 4.16cm

daktylos = finger's width = 2.08cm


(Roman)

leuga = 7,500 pedes = 2.22km

mille passuum or milliarium = 5,000 pedes = 1.48km

stadium = 625 pedes = 185m

actus = 12 perticae = 120 pedes = 35.5m

pertica = 10 pedes = 120 uncie = 2.96m

ulna = 6 pedes = 72 uncie = 1.78m

passus = 2 gradae = 5 pedes = 60 uncie = 1.48m

gradus = 2 1/2 pedes = 32 uncie = 74cm

cubitus = 1 1/2 pedes = 18 uncie = 44.4cm

pes = 12 uncie = 29.6cm

palmus = 3 uncie = 1/4 foot = 74 mm

uncia = 1/12 foot = 24.6mm

digitus = 1/16 foot = 18.5mm

 

Dry & Liquid Volume Measures:

1 Gallon=8lbs liquid

1 pin=4.5 gallons

1 firkin=2 pins=9 gallons

1 keg = 10 gallons

1 runlet=14.5 gallons

1 kilderkin=2 firkins=18 gallons

1 spirits barrel=3 firkins=27 gallons

1 barrel=4 firkins=36 gallons

1 tierce=42 gallons

1 hogshead=1.5 barrels or 2 spirits barrels=54 gallons

1 puncheon=2 barrels=72 gallons

1 butt=2 hogsheads=3 barrels=108 gallons

1 tun=2 butts=6 barrels=216 gallons

(dry)

1 bushel=8 gallons

4 bushels=1 barrel=32 gallons


(American Customary - Dry)

dry barrel = 3.28 bushels = 13.12 pecks = 26.24 dry gallons = 115.6 L

bushel = 4 pecks = 8 dry gallons = 24 dry quarts = L

peck = 2 dry gallons = 8 dry quarts = 16 dry pints = 8.8L

dry gallon = 4 dry quarts = 8 dry pints = 4.4L

dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.1L

dry pint = 33.6 cubic inches = 0.55L


(American Customary - Liquid)

hogshead = 2 barrels = 63 gallons = 252 quarts = 504 pints = 1,008 cups = 238.48L

liquid barrel = 31.5 gallons = 126 quarts = 252 pints = 504 cups = 4,032 fluid ounces = 119.24L

liquid gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 24 gills = 85.44 jiggers = 128 fluid ounces = 4.79L

liquid quart = 2 pints = 4 cups = 8 gills = 21.36 jiggers = 32 fluid ounces = 64 tablespoons = 946.4ml

liquid pint = 2 cups = 4 gills = 10.68 jiggers = 16 fluid ounces = 32 tablespoons = 473.2ml

cup = 2 gills = 5.34 jiggers = 8 fluid ounces = 16 tablespoons = 48 teaspoons = 236.6ml

gill = 4 fluid ounces = 2.67 jiggers = 8 tablespoons = 24 teaspoons = 96 drams = 118.3ml

jigger = 1.5 fluid ounces = 3 tablespoons = 18 teaspoons = 24 drams = 44.36ml

fluid ounce = 2 tablespoons = 6 teaspoons = 8 drams = 480 minims = 29.57ml

tablespoon = 1/2 fluid ounce = 3 teaspoons = 4 drams = 240 minims = 14.79ml

teaspoon = 1/6 fluid ounce = 80 minims = 4.93ml

fluid dram = 1/4 fluid ounce = 60 minims = 3.696 ml

minim = 1/480 fluid ounce = 0.95 grain of water = 61.6µm


(British Imperial)

gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 32 gills = 160 ounces = 4.55L

quart = 2 pints = 8 gills = 40 ounces = 1.14L

pint = 4 gills = 20 ounces = 568.3ml

gill = 5 ounces = 142.1ml

fluid ounce = 28.4ml


(English Medieval Dry/Liquid): 

tun = 2 butts = 4 casks = 8 coombs = 16 strikes = 32 bushesl = 64 kennings = 256 gallons

butt or pipe = 2 hogsheads = 4 coombs = 8 strikes = 16 bushels = 32 kennings = 64 pecks = 128 gallons

cask/hogshead = 2 coombs = 4 strikes = 8 bushels = 16 kennings = 32 pecks = 64 gallons = 128 pottles

barrel = 1 1/8 coombs = 2 1/4 strikes = 4 1/2 bushels = 9 kennings =18 pecks = 36 gallons = 72 pottles

coomb = 2 strikes = 4 bushels = 8 kennings = 16 pecks = 32 gallons = 64 pottles = 128 quarts

strike = 2 bushels = 4 kennings = 8 pecks = 16 gallons = 32 pottles = 64 quarts = 128 pints

bushel = 2 kennings = 4 pecks = 8 gallons = 16 pottles = 32 quarts = 64 pints = 128 cups

Kenning or pail = 2 pecks = 4 gallons = 8 pottles = 16 quarts = 32 pints = 64 cups = 128 gills

peck = 2 gallons = 4 pottles = 8 quarts = 16 pints = 32 cups = 64 gills = 128 jacks = 256 ounces

gallon = 2 pottles = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 32 gills = 64 jacks = 128 ounces

pottle or half-gallon = 2 quarts = 4 pints = 8 cups = 16 gills = 32 jacks = 64 ounces

quart = 2 pints = 4 cups = 8 gills = 16 jacks = 32 ounces

pint = 2 cups = 4 gills = 8 jacks = 16 ounces

cup = 2 gills = 4 jacks = 8 ounces = 16 mouthfuls

gill = 2 jacks = 4 ounces = 8 mouthfuls

jack or jackpot = 2 ounces/ponies = 4 mouthfuls

jigger = 1.5 ounces

ounce/pony = 2 mouthfuls

mouthful = 1/2 fluid ounce


(English Medieval Other):

perch = 16.5 feet x 1.5 feet x 1 foot or 24.75 cubic feet of dry stone

cord = 4 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet of cut firewood


(English Medieval Brewery)

tun = 2 butts = 4 hogsheads = 6 barrels = 12 kilderkins = 24 firkins = 216 gallons

butt = 2 hogsheads = 3 barrels = 108 gallons = 432 quarts

hogshead = 1 barrel + 1 kilderkin = 54 gallons = 216 quarts = 432 pints

barrel = 2 kilderkins = 4 firkins = 36 gallons = 144 quarts = 288 pints

kilderkin 2 firkins = 18 gallons = 72 quarts = 144 pints

firkin = 9 gallons = 36 quarts = 72 pints = 1,152 ounces

gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 128 ounces

quart = 2 pints = 32 ounces

pint = 16 ounces


(English Medieval Winery)

tun = 2 butts = 3 firkins = 4 hogsheads = 6 tierces = 8 barrels = 14 runlets = 210 gallons

butt or pipe = 1 1/2 firkins = 2 hogsheads = 3 tierces = 8 barrels = 7 runlets = 105 gallons

firkin/puncheon = 1 1/3 hogsheads = 2 tierces = 2 2/3 barrels = 4 2/3 runlets = 70 gallons

hogshead = 1 1/2 tierces = 2 barrels = 3 1/2 runlets = 52 1/2 gallons

tierce = 1 1/3 barrels = 2 1/3 runlets = 35 gallons

barrel = 1 3/4 runlets = 26 1/4 gallons

rundlet/runlet = 15 gallons = 1,920 ounces

gallon = 128 ounces


(Greek Dry Measure)

medimnos = 6 hecteis = 48 choenices = 192 cotylae

hecteus = 8 choenices = 32 cotylae

choenix = 4 cotylae = 1 man's daily grain ration

cotyla = 276ml


(Greek Liquid Measure)

metretes = 12 cheis = 24 hemicheis = 144 cotylae = about 1 amphora of wine

chous = 2 hemicheis = 12 cotylae

hemichous = 6 cotylae

cotyla = approximately 1 cup


(Roman Liquid Volume)

culleus = 20 amphorae = 40 urnes = 160 congii = 960 sextarii = 520l

amphora = 2 urnes = 8 congii = 48 sextarii = 72 hemiae = 144 triensi = 26l

urna = 4 congii = 24 sextarii = 48 hemiae = 72 triensi = 144 sextansi = 13l

congius = 6 sextarii = 12 hemiae = 18 triensi = 36 sextansi = 72 cyathae = 3.25l

sextarius = 1 1/2 choenises = 2 hemiae = 3 triensi = 6 sextansi = 12 cyathae = 48 ligulae = 540ml

choenix = 2/3 sextarius = 1 1/3 hemiae = 2 triensi = 4 sextansi = 8 cyathae = 32 ligulae = 360ml

hemina = 1/2 sextarius = 1.4 triensi = 3 sextansi = 6 cyathae = 24 ligulae = 270ml

triens = 1/3 sextarius = 4 cyathae = 16 ligulae = 180ml

sextans = 1/6 sextarius = 2 cyathae = 8 ligulae = 90ml

cyathus = 1/12 sextarius = 4 ligulae = 45ml

ligula = 1/48 sextarius = 11.25ml


(Roman Dry Volume)

quadrantal = 3 modii = 6 semodii = 48 sextarii = 96 heminae = 26l

modius = 2 semodii = 16 sextarii = 32 heminae = 64 quartaria = 128 acetabulae = 8.67l

semodius = 8 sextarii = 16 heminae = 32 quartaria = 64 acetabulae = 1/2 modius = 4.33l

sextarius = 2 heminae = 4 quartaria = 8 acetabulae = 1/16 modius = 540ml

hemina = 2 quartaria = 4 acetabulae = 1/32 modius = 270ml

quartarius = 2 acetabulae = 1/64 modius = 135ml

acetabulum = 1/128 modii = 67.5ml

 

Apothecary Weights

pound = 12 ounces = 96 drams = 288 scruples = 5,760 grains

ounce = 8 drams = 24 scruples = 480 grains

dram = 3 scruples = 60 grains = 3.89g

scruple = 20 grains = 1.296g

grain = 64.8mg

 

Weight Measures:

(metals/troy)

pound = 12 ounces = 240 pennyweight = 5760 grains = 373.24g

ounce = 20 pennyweight = 480 grains = 31.1g

pennyweight = 24 grains = 1.55g

grain = 65 mg


(British/avoirdupois)

ton/long ton = 20 hundredweight = 80 quarters = 160 stone = 2,250 pounds = 1,016kg

hundredweight = 4 quarters = 8 stone = 112 pounds = 1,792 ounces = 50.8kg

quarter = 2 stone = 28 pounds = 448 ounces = 12.7kg

stone = 14 pounds = 224 ounces = 3,584 drams = 6.35kg

pound = 16 ounces = 256 drams = 454g

ounce = 16 drams = 28.35g

dram = 1/16 ounce = 1.77g


(American/avoirdupois)

ton/short ton = 20 hundredweight = 80 quarters = 2,000 pounds = 907.2kg

hundredweight = 4 quarters = 100 pounds = 4,000 ounces = 45.36kg

quarter = 25 pounds = 400 ounces = 11.34kg

pound = 16 ounces = 256 drams = 7,000 grains = 453.6g

ounce = 16 drams = 437.5 grains = 28.35g

dram = 27.34 grains = 1.77g

grain = 65mg


(English Medieval Avoirdupois)

ton = 20 hundredweight = 80 quarters = 160 stone = 2,240 pounds = 1,152kg

hundredweight = 4 quarters = 8 stone = 16 cloves = 112 pounds = 57.6kg

quarter or tod= 2 stone = 4 cloves = 28 pounds = 448 ounces = 14.4kg

stone = 2 cloves = 14 pounds = 224 ounces = 7.2kg

clove of cheese = 8 pounds = 128 ounces = 3.6kg

clove or nail = 7 pounds = 112 ounces = 3.18kg

pound = 16 ounces = 256 drams = 7,000 grains = 454g

ounce = 16 drams = 427.5 grains = 28g

dram = 1/16 ounce = 27.34 grains = 

grain = 1/7000 pound = 64.8mg


(English Medieval Tower)

pound = 12 ounces = 240 pennyweight = 5,760 grains = 373g

mark = 8 ounces = 160 pennyweight = 3,840 grains = 248.8g

ounce = 20 pennyweight = 480 grains = 31.1g

pennyweight = 24 grains = 1.56g

grain = 64.8mg


(Greek)

talent = 60 minae = 600 drachmae = 36,000 obols = 25.86kg

mina = 100 drachmae = 600 obols = 431g

drachma = 6 obols = 4.31g

obol = 0.72g


(Roman)

mina = 1 1/3 libras = 16 ounces = 128 drachms = 256 scruples = 512 oboli = 436.22g

libra = 12 uncie = 96 drachms = 288 scruples = 576 oboli = 1,728 siliquas = 4,608 chalci = 327g

uncia = 8 drachms = 24 scruples = 48 oboli = 144 siliquas = 384 chalci = 27.3g

drachma = 3 scruples = 6 oboli = 18 siliquas = 48 chalci = 3.41g

scrupulum = 2 oboli = 6 siliquas = 16 chalci = 1.14g

obolus = 3 siliquas = 8 chalci = 568mg

siliqua = 2.67 chalci = 189mg

chalcus = 71 mg


Note: this list is far fom exhaustive, it just includes those I used to create my own systems for the Sundered Spheres©.

 

Systems of Weights & Measures